Books

Dasar-dasar Demografi (Introduction to Demography)

Editor  : Sri Moertiningsih Adioetomo dan Omas Bulan Samosir

Publisher  : Salemba 4 dan Lembaga Demografi FEB UI

This book covers the revised and updated subjects of basic technique of demography. It uses examples from the latest and current researchers in Demography.

To buy this book, please contact us through info@ldfebui.org

Mozaik Demografi

Editor: Ari Kuncoro dan Sonny Harry B. Harmadi

Publisher: Lembaga Demografi FEB Universitas Indonesia, 2015

This book includes the articles written by researchers of LD FEB UI for the 50 years LD FEB UI anniversary. It covers the population issues and policies in Indonesia.

To buy this book, please contact us through info@ldfebui.org

Tobacco Economics in Indonesia [downloadable]

Penulis : Sarah Barber, Sri Moertiningsih Adioetomo, Abdillah Ahsan, Diahhadi Setyonaluri

 

Low real cigarette prices, population growth, rising household incomes, and mechanization of the kretek industry have contributed to sharp increases in tobacco consumption in Indonesia since the 1970s. The majority of tobacco users are smokers, and the vast majority of smokers (88 percent) use kreteks, or cigarettes made of tobacco and cloves. Smoking prevalence is 34 percent, and 63 percent of men smoke. Per capita adult tobacco consumption increased by 9.2 percent between 2001 and 2004. Given the delay of up to 25 years between the time of smoking uptake and the onset of many chronic diseases, the negative health effects of increases in cigarette consumption are being seen only now. Up to one-half of today’s 57 million smokers in Indonesia will die of tobacco-related illnesses.

The customs law states that excise should be used to reduce consumption of tobacco products and control their distribution because they are unhealthy. In practice, the primary factor taken into consideration when setting the tobacco tax rate is the annual revenue target. The system continues to promote gaps in prices between products, tobacco has become more affordable over time, and smoking prevalence among children has increased sharply. Cigarette prices and tax rates in Indonesia are low relative to other countries, and real cigarettes prices have remained stable since the 1980s.

The report concludes with five recommendations. First, the tobacco excise system should be simplified by eliminating the production tiers, applying a uniform specific tax, implementing tax increases across all products, and automatically adjusting the specific tax for inflation. Specific excises that impose the same tax per cigarette are more effective in discouraging cigarette consumption. Tax increases that aim to reduce consumption need to be higher than the general rate of inflation and large enough to offset income growth. Second, the maximum legally allowable excise tax rate for all tobacco products should be applied to reverse the trend of increasing cigarette affordability and to start to address the significant burden of tobacco-related illnesses. Tax levels that achieve the global benchmark of 70 percent through a specific, or primarily specific rather than ad valorem, tax would have the greatest health impact. Third, the employment generation goal of the tobacco tax system should be re-examined to determine whether other programs or policies would be more effective in promoting employment. Fourth, the tax rates should be set at a level to correct for market failures related to lack of information and addiction, and to reflect the true costs of smoking to individuals and society. Lastly, it is recommended that the 2 percent earmarked excises be used effectively to support local economies that could be negatively affected by reductions in tobacco consumption, and to implement tobacco control programs more broadly.

 

Download Tobacco Economics in Indonesia-English Version” dan “Ekonomi Tembakau di Indonesia-Bahasa Indonesia

Kajian Impor Tembakau Indonesia: Kondisi, Tantangan dan Kebijakan

Penulis:Abdillah Ahsan, Nur Hadi Wiyono, Meita Veruswati

Penerbit: Universitas Indonesia Publishing

Saat ini tembakau yang ditanam di dalam negeri tidak mencukupi kebutuhan industri rokok. Permintaan untuk semua jenis tembakau antara tahun 2011 dan 2016 mencapai 293.387 ton per tahun. Namun, permintaan untuk tiga jenis tembakau, yaitu Virginia, oriental dan burley, pada tahun 2015 adalah 84.163 ton di mana tembakau Virginia memiliki proporsi terbesar (83%). Tembakau virginia dan tembakau burley hanya dapat ditanam di 3 provinsi di Indonesia yaitu Jawa Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Bali. Areal penanaman tembakau di Kabupaten Bojonegoro dan Kabupaten Lumanjang menurun dan mereka menghasilkan jumlah yang tidak memadai untuk industri tembakau.

Kajian ini menemukan bahwa situasi saat ini menguntungkan industri rokok yang memiliki akses mudah untuk membeli tembakau yang lebih murah untuk mengurangi biaya produksi (melalui impor), yang membuat petani tembakau menjadi miskin. Upaya pemerintah untuk meningkatkan bea masuk dan kontrol impor tembakau harus dipercepat. Peningkatan bea masuk akan meningkatkan biaya daun tembakau sebagai bahan baku industri tembakau, yang pada gilirannya akan meningkatkan harga rokok. Kementerian Pertanian yang bertanggung jawab pada kesejahteraan petani, harus secara aktif memberikan rekomendasi tentang impor produk tembakau yang bekerja untuk membantu petani tembakau.

Kajian ini merekomendasikan perlunya rencana aksi yang lebih realistis berdasarkan pada koherensi kebijakan untuk mencapai sistem yang lebih adil. Untuk memfasilitasi ini, semua petani tembakau harus terdaftar. Sistem yang lebih adil harus memasukkan peraturan tentang kewajiban industri rokok untuk membeli tembakau domestik dari petani tembakau setempat sebagai persyaratan untuk mengimpor tembakau dan harus ada kebijakan harga standar/minimum daun tembakau. Kementerian Pertanian harus membantu petani, yang tanaman tembakaunya gagal dan membantu petani yang ingin beralih tanam ke tanaman lain karena tembakau tidak menguntungkan.

 

Download Kajian Impor Tembakau Indonesia: Kondisi, Tantangan dan Kebijakan

Kondisi Sosial dan Ekonomi Negara-Negara Peratifikasi Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): Sebuah Pembelajaran untuk Indonesia

Penulis: Abdillah Ahsan, Nur Hadi Wiyono, Dewi Prihastuti, Lanni P. Sianipar

Penerbit: UI Publishing

Buku ini menganalisis data ekonomi negara-negara yang meratifikasi Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) dengan membandingkan kondisi sebelum dan sesudah ratifikasi. Hal ini dilakukan untuk menjawab pertanyaan publik apakah ratifikasi FCTC berpengaruh negatif terhadap kondisi perekonomian suatu negara.

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